Who is R. Steiner and his place in the Waldorf education system
Waldorf pedagogy - educational system developed by Rudolf Steiner
Waldorf pedagogy is a system of methods and receptions of education and training, based on the Anthroposophical concept of human development as a holistic interaction of physical, mental and spiritual factors. Fundamentals of Waldorf education theory were developed by R. Steiner. On the principles of Waldorf education system organized the so-called the free Waldorf school, kindergartens and curative education of the community "Camphill" — private enterprises, sometimes partially subsidized by the state. The first such school was opened in 1919 in Germany (Stuttgart) for children of workers of factory "Waldorf-Astoria" (hence the name). In the years 1933-1945, the years of the fascist government, these schools were closed and teachers were repressed. V. p. has developed since 60-ies of XX century in many countries (in the 90-ies there were about 500 schools and 1,000 gardens).
Probably the most valuable human qualities at all times been considered kindness and compassion. It is obvious that these essential qualities, like many others, are laid in childhood. Can you influence their development? Does the formation of the sensitivity and responsiveness of the child from the conditions of his upbringing?
Almost all primary systems and programs as its major tasks the moral or social-emotional education. In most of them the main method is the assimilation of moral norms and rules of behavior. On the material of fairy tales, stories or dramatizing children learn to evaluate the actions of the characters, learn "what is good and what is bad. " This is expected to cause corresponding actions of the child: knowing, for example, that sharing with others is good, he will strive to become good and begin to give away their candy and toys. However, the practice shows that this is not so. Most kids in 3-4 years to properly evaluate good and bad actions of other characters. They know what's good to help, to share, to give, weak, but in real life, their behavior is usually far from these rules. Obviously, the knowledge of moral norms is not a sufficient condition for compliance. In addition, the kindness and responsiveness is not reduced to the implementation of certain rules of conduct. These qualities are based on the ability to sympathy and empathy, friendly attitude to another, which manifests itself in a variety of situations. What should I do? Just need to educate not only the correct behavior, how the moral sense, which allow you to accept other people's joys and challenges as your own. However, it is much more difficult.
The most common method of education of social and moral sentiments in recent years is the installation on the awareness of children of their experiences: they learn to listen to ourselves, to name their state and mood, to understand their qualities and virtues. It is assumed that a child who understands and articulates their feelings, can easily stand on the position of another and to understand what he is going through. But then again life shows that it is, alas, not so. The feeling and awareness of their pain (physical or emotional) does not always lead to empathy for pain of others. The concentration of the person on itself and on its self-assessment, their strengths and their emotions can generate such heavy emotions like envy, resentment, alienation, competitive against others. Are there adequate educational strategies education of moral sentiments and humane interpersonal relations?
The motto of Waldorf education: no early development. Education in a Waldorf kindergarten are not designed for the development of intelligence and early learning. Here strictly avoid any load on the memory and thinking up to 7 years. A small child understands the world experienced and not the rational way. The world of abstract concepts foreign to the child, and do not enter him there prematurely. The child can later more successfully master the intellectual sphere, essential to modern civilization, if the early child development goes the way of experience, but not rationality-influenced way.
Another important feature of Waldorf early childhood education is the limitation on any assessment of the crumbs. Rating — both negative and positive — is an interference in the natural development, the power of an adult. The child is waiting for assessment, working under pressure, eager praise or avoiding blame. However, he loses the opportunity to act on essence, out of love for the actual case.
However, the absence of estimates does not imply total indifference to the child. On the contrary, the atmosphere of goodwill and love is the basis and main principle of Waldorf education. Only love to the baby, accepting of his personality, allows you to open up and develop its unique personality. The teacher should strive to save a child from the necessity of self-affirmation and allow to realize his own powers and abilities.
Protect and support any initiative by the small pupil and as little as possible to say "no" to him. There are only three reasons why you can refuse or deny to do anything:
- if the execution of the wishes of the child may cause harm to himself (e. g. , to go outside in cold weather without a coat);
- if his actions can hurt others (for example, not to make noise when others are sleeping);
- if you can suffer any thing (for example, you cannot draw on the wall);
The less the teacher uses the word "no", the more weight it has. This prohibition should be clear, concise, and unexceptional. The main positive parenting and the teaching setting in Waldorf pedagogy is the imitation of the caregiver. The whole life of the child under 7 years is a continuous play of what is happening around. In this case imitation is not understood as a repetition of another's movements or words, but rather as "contamination" as the experience itself, and its relationship with the world. Therefore, you need to strictly follow that surrounded the baby, nothing happened, which he would not need to emulate. If the child grows up around an angry father or the angry kindergartener, he'll be up for anger and aggression. If in the environment there is honesty and kindness, he will be truthful and responsive to the people. We are raising a child of their everyday actions and not what we are talking about.
Education example: at preschool age the moral sense of the child's kindness and compassion are manifested mainly in the sphere of relations with peers. We offer several examples of communication and interpersonal relationships of children in regular (traditional) and Waldorf kindergartens. The differences are quite striking.
The first thing that catches the eye when visiting the Waldorf kindergarten is the lack of show children. When a new adult comes in a regular kindergarten, children usually surround it, and each seeks to draw attention to yourself. Some show their toys, others talk about their success, and others demonstrate their skills, fourth call loudly or demonstratively bullies, provoking the reaction of the stranger. In Waldorf kindergarten, the picture is quite different: the appearance of a stranger has no significant effect on children's behavior. Politely saying Hello, everyone continues to do their work. He does something in order to do the job of the adult or to boast in front of peers, or attract attention to themselves, but because it's interesting. Therefore, a new adult is not too affects the interest in the proceedings initiated on the behavior of children.
The same lack of show features and communication of children. Another obvious difference Waldorf kindergarten — the overall friendliness and peacefulness. In the traditional garden educator and then have to resolve conflicts and to break up the fighting. Complaints on each other — someone who took away a toy is not accepted in the game — are common. In a Waldorf kindergarten conflicts almost do not occur. And if there are, they pass very quickly and usually without the intervention of educators. Children easily and willingly apologize if I offended someone, offer to make peace, find ways to overcome misunderstandings. Of course, here there are bullies and bullies, especially among those who recently joined the band But the aggressive actions of such a child will find the answer and continue, as if they are completely ignored. This educational strategy is more effective than condemnation, punishment, notation and appeals. And best of all, they last but not least the children themselves.
In General, Waldorf pedagogy suggests that the moral development of children is largely determined by not only public attitudes, influence of family and the innate instincts, but above all living conditions and upbringing of the child.
Rudolf Steiner the founder of Waldorf education
Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), without a doubt, is one of the most interesting, amazing and at the same time controversial phenomena of the spiritual life of the twentieth century:
- he is the editor and publisher of the natural scientific writings of Goethe, the full significance of which they were first discovered and made fruitful for culture;
- author of important works in philosophy and theory of science;
- as the founder of anthroposophy, he made an attempt to create methods of investigation of the spiritual side of the world and man; they were given a significant impulse in architecture, performing arts, created a new art of movement — eurythmy;
- he founded method of agriculture is a pioneer of ecological agriculture,
- and ideas in the field of social life form the basis of the work of many agencies, consulting firms and banks; and, finally, not to mention the inspired therapeutic pedagogy, and medicine.
However, the greatest fame of his name received in connection with a wide spread of educational institutions, primarily kindergartens and schools — operating on the basis of the created pedagogy. Teaching and training are, perhaps, the main motive of his life.
Childhood and school years of R. Steiner
The contrast of nature and technology — the problem of modern civilization R. Steiner was born in 1861 in Austria-Hungary, in an ordinary family of a railroad employee. His father was first a telegrapher and then as a chief small station. So, R. Steiner, already as a child, acquainted with the innovations of the technology — Telegraph, telephone, device train station. On the other hand, his childhood is surrounded by beautiful nature, which he empathizes with all of the child's soul. This is the opposite to natural and technological, has become one of the major problems of modern humanity, a child begins to worry the boy.
Caring about the future of his son, the father seeks to give him a good education. He sees his son, the future railway engineers and that's why he gives it not in the school, and in real school. However, the financial possibilities of the family was very limited.
Love of learning, ability to learn and broad interests
Little Rudolph, realizing this, tried very diligently to learn: good students were exempted from tuition fees. But, apart from such external motivations, the characteristic feature of the young R. Steiner was the fact that he is alive and deeply interested in the subjects taught in school and learned a lot myself. So he alone, according to the book, taken from teachers, enthusiastically studying the geometry, and then takes possession of calculus much earlier than their peers; fourteen years he gets himself "Critique of pure reason" Kant and diligently studies it, and then other philosophical books;along with the program of the school, he is undergoing school, mastering Greek and Latin; history and literature have become another hobby of teenagers and young men. This diversity of interests can already see the seeds of the future concept of Waldorf schools, it brings together a curriculum of the gymnasium, the humanitarian cycle and the real school, focused on scientific and mathematical disciplines.
The personality of the teacher for the child's most important subject
About how important school and education in the life of R. Steiner, can we learn from his autobiography. Description of family life occupy a relatively smaller place. But the love R. Steiner recalls his teachers! He describes in detail the methods and content of teaching and gives lively portraits of those people who had influenced him in his school years and while studying at the Higher technical school in Vienna. In this, again, is impossible not to see another principle, which underlies the pedagogy of Waldorf kindergartens and schools: underline the role of the individual educator and teacher, his human qualities: decisive in the education and upbringing are not "techniques" and "technology", but man himself is able to breathe the living spirit and soul in the material taught.
The first independent lessons — to help those lagging behind
Another important motive school years, played in later life by R. Steiner, a huge role is to help those lagging behind. Since about fourteen years he began to work with students at their school, giving them auxiliary lessons, "to little to add to what was my parents spent on my education from their meager incomes. " He writes: "I owe these lessons very much. Perceived presenting material to others, I in a sense was awakened for him. "It is an active doctrine to convert the received material and teaching other students who had difficulties in learning, was the first concrete exercise in didactic art and, moreover, the living school of psychology. "In my students I became acquainted with the difficulties of human mental development". And again, this motif we meet later founded and pedagogy: encouraging the spirit of mutual assistance and support, which is the opposite of the selection and breeding of the gifted: if I have abilities and something turns out well, and I help the weak, my ability to not only disappear, but also get the opportunity to develop a new role — social responsibility. The consequence of this approach is the development of social skills understanding of other people and the orientation of actions on the other, is one of the most appreciated in modern society qualities. — Fair teaching. R. Steiner continues to do for many years.
There are not only sensual but also spiritual world — the situation is still unacceptable to science focused only on sensual experience
And finally, one important side of the internal life of the boy in which one can see the seeds of the future of anthroposophy should be mentioned. In his autobiography, R. Steiner describes how at the age of about seven years, he experiences in himself the awakening of the abilities of spiritual sight. Before his inner eye begins to open up the other side of the world, hidden from sense of sight: "I could see objects and beings that "see" and who "do not see". The boy, however, was far from being simply naive to accept this gift. He seeks to comprehend it, carefully making sure to not fall to illusions or dreaming. That helps him with math: "I wanted to find a reason to tell myself that the experience of the spiritual world just as there is little illusion as the world of sense experience. In geometry it is possible to know something that is going through the soul itself due to its own force. This idea allows to speak about the spiritual world as well as sensual. . . " Descriptions of experiences of the spiritual world in childhood, one can find in the biographies of many people, for example, the outstanding figure of Russian philosopher Pavel Florensky. Unlike R. Steiner was that his spiritual experiences are not relegated to the background, as is the case with Florensky. This experience is not a spontaneous uncontrolled nature of consciousness, as many mystics, whose experience often has little to do with the realities of life.
The spiritual must serve practical life
Spiritual experience R. Steiner allows him deeper and more fully understand the phenomena and processes of the world of nature and the lives of the people he encountered. It gives him the opportunity to act much more effectively and successfully in everyday life. Position: spiritual ought to serve life, is, perhaps, the main nerve of the subsequently created "the science of the spirit" or anthroposophy. And while for many years R. Steiner says nothing about it: spiritual fruit requires a long maturation.
Vienna, Weimar, Berlin
Admission to the High school and the beginning of the research of the scientific heritage of Goethe
In the fall of 1879, R. Steiner entered the Higher technical school in Vienna. The main subjects of study — mathematics, natural history, chemistry. There, he met with the prominent researcher Goethe, Faust commentator Professor Karl Julius Sreeram, whose lectures on the history of literature produced for young student deep impression. Regardless K. Shroer, mainly engaged in literary work of Goethe, R. Steiner met with the teaching Goethe about color and begins to independently deal with the optics.
R. Steiner as young student — editor and commentator of academic publication
He shows his first manuscripts K. Shroer and suggested that Goethe's approach to phenomena of light and colors are hidden has not been exhausted for science opportunities. This work leads to the fact that K. Shroer recommends that the 22-year-old student publisher Cursaru planning academic publication "German national literature" — a monumental series spanning over 200 volumes — as the editor and commentator of the housing of the natural science of Goethe. Such a proposal could not cause the publisher surprise. However, after some hesitation, Kurshner agrees to accept the proposal but with a condition of bail K. Shroer, which he willingly provides. R. Steiner enthusiastically takes on the case and in a short time achieves wonderful success. His commentaries and the introductory essays to scientific creations of Goethe have the highest rating from experts. This work on the scientific heritage of Goethe and Goethe's aesthetics of R. Steiner devoted a total of about fifteen years. In 1884, on the recommendation of K. Shroer, R. Steiner becomes a tutor in the family of the Viennese merchant Ladislav Specht. Among four sons, with whom had to deal with R. Steiner, was one that caused parents concern.
Medical and educational success
A boy of ten was considered physically and mentally ill. He suffered from hydrocephalus. The slightest mental strain caused him headaches, pallor, and abnormalities in behavior. Home family physician Specht, the famous Vienna physician, I. Breuer, master of Freud, expressed doubts about the ability of the child to development. R. Steiner, on the contrary, was convinced that the child hidden great spiritual capacity, and that the whole thing is only to bring spiritual and emotional in the right, healthy relationship with the body.
Education — art based on the knowledge of the person
The family believed R. Steiner, and was entirely given by him. "This educational task was for me a rich source of teachings. Thanks to the practice of teaching, which I had to use, I opened the understanding of the relationship between the spiritual-mental and physical in man. Here I went through the authentic school of physiology and psychology. I understand that education and teaching must become an art based on true knowledge of man. I had to carefully adhere to the principle of economy. For any lesson, which lasted half an hour, I often had to prepare for two hours with the aim to arrange teaching material in the shortest possible time and with the least effort of the student to achieve the highest possible productivity. It was necessary to think carefully about the sequence of disciplines, to identify the mode of the day boy. Within two years, my student was able to catch up in school, and then successfully pass the exam for matriculation". He later went to University and became a doctor.
Science and spiritual-scientific approaches should be connected in a single anthropology
In this amazing educational and therapeutic achievement as in the approach by R. Steiner to the task set before him, you have to learn the basic features of the future of Waldorf education. On the one hand, the opinion of R. Steiner focused on the spiritual and emotional being of your pet, deep hidden abilities, and inclinations. On the other hand, he sees before him the task that should be approached with natural-scientific, methodologically, taking into account the physiological and psychological side. Will not help naked enthusiasm. Necessary sober, almost technical approach to build a teaching based therapeutic and hygienic aspects. The effect of spiritual effort should be checked for physical health and make the necessary adjustments. This account bodily Constitution of the students, special attention to physical development and a healthy combination of corporeal and spiritual-the spiritual was destined subsequently to become one of the typical hallmarks of the Waldorf pedagogy.
"The theory of knowledge of Goethe"
Activity home teacher in the family Specht ended in 1890, when R. Steiner moved to Weimar, city of Goethe and Schiller, to work in the Goethe archive. As we mentioned above, its introductory article and comments in the publication "German national literature" received a high rating. Now R. Steiner was requested to prepare for publication of the scientific heritage of Goethe as part of the complete edition of Goethe, taken by the Duchess Sophia. R. Steiner conducts in Weimar, a total of seven years. In his Vienna and the Weimar years, along with teaching and research, Goethe, R. Steiner works a lot on developing their own scientific and philosophical positions. He writes, "the Theory of cognition of Goethe's world Outlook", he defended his doctoral dissertation, then published a small book entitled "Truth and science", creates his own main philosophical work — "the Philosophy of freedom".
"Philosophy of liberty" — creative freedom — the basic essence of a person
In all these works of R. Steiner is trying to justify the idea of a new science, which could find expression lively as the spirit of nature and the being of man. In the "philosophy of freedom" he attempts to show that genuine human being is creative freedom. He opposes any constraint from outside, no matter what form it takes. But a genuine free action is not arbitrary, and action based on knowledge. What, however, can be based on the knowledge of the activity, what benefits it can bring, showed his work in the family Specht and his further life and activities.
"Philosophy of freedom", pedagogy and philosophy of the twentieth century
I want to see that as creative freedom, which, according to R. Steiner, is the highest expression of the human being, and a healthy sensory and bodily life both of these polarities of human existence are both the goal of all pedagogical efforts. However, these are not enough encouraged in our modern urban civilization. The technical environment is more conducive monotonous, monotonous activities maintenance of vehicles and machinery, sedentary behavior, and bureaucratic management style is ill-suited for the development of creative freedom and individual responsibility. However, criticism of modern civilization or a simple statement of the consequences of this situation for human life is not a fruitful path. For R. Steiner, a practical contrast to these unhealthy trends. So he creates a pedagogy that leads to freedom, pedagogy aimed at achieving bodily-soul-spiritual health, which is real therapy for our era.
"Philosophy of liberty" as a philosophical and pedagogical anthropology
The main motives of the "Philosophy of freedom" which is nothing but a philosophical anthropology — one of the main lines of the philosophy of the twentieth century — implicitly contains a pedagogical explanation and, thus, can serve as a basis for pedagogical anthropology. As modern philosophical anthropology, especially by M. Scheler, H. , Plesner and A. Gelen, in his ontology and theory of knowledge R. Steiner underlines openness, incompleteness, capacity development and plasticity of man in his relation to the world. The world experience is not complete in itself, the reality that you only need to "reflect" the concepts in the learning process. At first, the world stands before man as the sum of separate, mysterious phenomena. This incomplete Givens opposed to inquiring people looking for relationships, trying to understand mysterious phenomena. Therefore, a child asks questions: why, what, where?
A world without the knowing of the person pending
But the world of the adult, seemingly complete, is not. It requires scientific treatment, research, and it seems every time differently depending on the question, the aspect in which conducted the study. The world also undergoes change in the process natural, or planned human activities. All of this points to the fact that the reality that we have every time the case is constituted by at least half by the man himself. What acts on the part of man as creative the beginning of a constitutive, R. Steiner calls thinking. However, the purpose of thinking should be the establishment of structures and theoretical models of the world, another philosophical, metaphysical system — as it took place in the history of philosophy since antiquity. Our thinking must become the educator of man towards a new culture of perception. The subject of perception indicates the direction in the direction of Goethe, whom contemporaries called a genius of perception. Sensual and spiritual, was Goethe in the living unity, which was so deep that on the path of pure contemplation that it can achieve the necessary modern man of self-knowledge as if by itself. Thus raised motif have not been developed in the history of German classical philosophy, but became one of the major currents of philosophy of the twentieth century. We mean first and foremost the phenomenology of Husserl and his school, and the criticism of metaphysics W. Dilthey and M. Heidegger. Thus, we put the "Philosophy of freedom" and "the world view of Goethe" there is this criticism of Platonism, in the framework of the development of modern philosophy, philosophical and pedagogical anthropology, which are located in the internal relationship developed by R. Steiner's ideas.
Berlin — a literary and theater critic
In 1897 R. Steiner moved to Berlin, where he became editor of the "Literary magazine". Through these activities he met many different circles of Berlin society. He's collaborating with "Theatre society," publishes critical articles in the "Drama piece", participates in the "Free literary society. " The school Board for the workers, founded by Liebknecht, invites him to teach a work history and oratory. R. Steiner with joy and enthusiasm in tackling the task and, thus, meets him problems of the modern proletariat, with the socialist movement and Marxism. And again, he turns to the pedagogical task.
R. Steiners activities at the school for workers, founded by Liebknecht
He had to teach adult men and women from the proletarian environment-oriented Marxism that came to class after a hard day. One of the participants in these activities in his memoirs describes that R. Steiner managed to make the class interesting and alive and awaken the workers spiritual life. The number of students is constantly growing. The activities in this school lasted for six years and was completed only in 1904, when the school Board, fearing the growing popularity of R. Steiner, was forced to stop working due to non-Marxist orientation of teaching.
The face of centuries — the brink of life
In mid-September, 1900 R. Steiner was invited to present a paper on Nietzsche in the Theosophical library of count and Countess Brockdorff. This event can be a turning point in his life. R. Steiner noticed that among his listeners there were people seriously seeking spiritual knowledge. Listeners also noticed that R. Steiner presents not just read, but speaks from his own deep spiritual experience. Followed by a secondary invitation.
The leadership of the Theosophical society
This time R. Steiner speaks of the esoteric basis of creativity of Goethe, about the symbolism of his "Tale of the Green Snake and the beautiful Lily". Then R. Steiner reads a lecture course on the Christian mystics and Christianity. Soon he is asked to become Secretary of the German branch of the Theosophical society, took over the leadership of the latter. In the framework of the Theosophical society R. Steiner begins to develop his "science of the spirit". He is convinced that modern civilization needs a new spiritual knowledge to overcome the one-sidedness of materialistic science, on the one hand, and purely spiritual, mystical and religious. This spiritual knowledge he sees the way out of the impasse in the development of Western civilization to which the need will result in the dominance of the purely materialistic science. However, he always emphasizes a practical orientation to develop them theosophy, and later anthroposophy. Its activities are gradually spreading to many cities of Germany, where he gives lectures and visiting groups of Theosophists, as their real teacher. It refers to a lot of people for advice in spiritual and practical life.
The Construction Of The Goetheanum
Gradually from a small circle of people, thanks to the work of R. Steiner, the Theosophical movement became a noticeable phenomenon of the spiritual life of Germany. There is a need in our own building and R. Steiner creates a model of the Goetheanum, the construction of which involves representatives from more than ten European Nations, including representatives of the Russian intelligentsia (White A. , Voloshin M. , Voloshin Margarita and others). On the size done within just a decade of work can be judged from the fact that the Goetheanum, a monumental building constructed of different types of wood, were erected on voluntary public donations for such a movement as the Theosophical movement in Germany 1902-1903, consisted of a few scattered small groups, unthinkable. By 1913, the start of construction, the movement had thousands of members in many cities. In addition to lecturing activities, leadership Society, personal counseling R. Steiner lays the foundations of his "spiritual science" and wrote a number of seminal articles and books. In his lectures, which are now for the most part shorthand for future publication, it touches on the various themes of the spiritual life, history, knowledge of the world and man.
The first reports about the education
In the lectures given by R. Steiner in different cities of Germany in the years 1906-1907 and generalized then in a small book called "the Education of the child from the point of view of spiritual science", he first expounds his views on child development, particularly his thinking and shows how a child's thinking goes through various phases and what pedagogical insights from this follow. He identifies three main stages:
- thinking as imitating the attainment of meaningful human action and implement it through their own actions;
- thinking as figurative and symbolic understanding of the world processes;
- thinking both personally and motivated is the question.
R. Steiner compares the development of thinking with the emergence of the plants flower. If we want to grow a flower, we care for the soil, watching the light and warmth, in short, we create the conditions for healthy growth of the whole plant as a whole and then at the right time the flower blossoms. On this image seen as suitable by R. Steiner to the main problem of modern pedagogy — the development of thinking.
Every age has its own task
R. Steiner is not suitable to the problem directly, head-on, does not emit thinking too much, isolating from other important aspects of human mental life — perceptions and experiences of the world, life will — to cultivate, to train him. It would be like if we wanted to artificially draw out from the plant flower. But he determines what specific opportunities and chances of every age and stems from the needs of the child in development at any given time, not ahead of development, running ahead of him activities. These chances it is important not to miss, it is important to give them the greatest opportunity for disclosure. In other words, the child must be a child and not a preparation for adulthood or to "enroll in school", as is often the case today. In that childhood, with all its characteristics exists, there is a deeper meaning.
The implementation of pedagogy based on authentic knowledge of a human being requires more than just special curricula and programs. It requires a special organization that is entirely focused on the pedagogical action. The Supreme principle of that school should be teaching understanding. This implies that the College teachers of this school always make joint efforts to deepen their understanding of being a growing person, and address specific pedagogical questions focus not on suggestions given from outside the public administration, but the teaching situation related to the needs of specific children.
The movement for social renewal — "threefold social organism" in 1917-1921. The first world war — R. Steiner, an active participant in public life
In the midst of the construction of the Goetheanum, 1914, the outbreak of the catastrophe of the first world war. The year 1914 was followed by the fateful 1917. R. Steiner, far from being indifferent, contemplative attitude to the tragic events of those years. Responding to a question posed to him politically engaged anthroposophists, he throws the plan out of the war, which sets out the "average European" program of social reconstruction. Person which is referred to R. Steiner with specific questions, was the count of Lerchenfeld, nephew of the Bavarian Ambassador in Berlin, and the brother of the head of the Austrian Cabinet count Polzer-Hadits. They asked about the possibility of withdrawing from the war and social change that should be made in post-war Europe. R. Steiner developed the concept reflected in the "Central European", which, in contrast to 14 points Wilson proposed by the West, radically continued the decentralization of power, i. e. the division of power in the state on a functional basis. The program was antithetical to the ideas put forward by Wilson and Lenin.
The national question and the nature of the state
The principle of self-determination of Nations proposed by Wilson, could be implemented in Central Europe, only on the basis of national States. However, for Central and Eastern Europe, where closely side by side on the same territory a variety of national community, the connection of the principle of nationality and statehood will inevitably entail conflicts on the basis of discrimination of national minorities. Such wilanowski and Lenin abstract ideas, according to R. Steiner, are based on an obsolete understanding of the nature of the state. The government conceived them as a unified whole whose competence extends to all aspects of society — Economics, law and the spiritual-cultural sphere.
Abstract "correct" ideas — in fact, destructive and dangerous
R. Steiner, on the contrary, tried to show that in the era of increasing individualization of the idea of a single, monolithic state is more not modern, and was one of the causes of the tragedy of world war II.
The social question cannot be solved on the basis of abstract ideas
The principle of nationality refers to the spiritual-cultural sphere, which should not be subject to bureaucratically managed state machine and must be developed on the principles of freedom, in that time, the state should limit its remit is purely the protection of the rights and safety of citizens. In the economy where we are talking about the needs of people in terms of division of labor must dominate the brotherly cooperation of all the members of the economic life, in connection with R. Steiner speaks about the economy, built on an associative basis.
Triple articulation of the social unity
This idea of functional divisions of "public body" for three relatively Autonomous field of cultural — spiritual, legal and economic — received in subsequent years, the name "Triple articulations" or "Trenchlines" (Dreigliederung) social organism. Each of these areas is subject to qualitatively different patterns, and should be organized in accordance with them. All three areas must be in dynamic equilibrium with each other; the domination of any one of them is a society with the need to the crisis. Domination of the spiritual component — to the dictatorship, legal — bureaucratic, economic — spiritual-cultural degradation and social injustice. In 1917, Steiner expounds these ideas in application to the situation of military crisis, and transmits it in the form of memoranda leading politicians of Germany and Austria, and also meets and talks with them personally; the latter, agreeing with him theoretically, yet not taken advantage of these suggestions, bringing to the fore a purely territorial aims of the war. R. Steiner sharply negatively reacted to the prisoner in 1918 Brest world, describing it as a disaster, in contrast to the prevailing wisdom in his time public opinion. "Now the war will continue, but in a different form. " What R. Steiner was right, the whole political history of Europe in the twentieth century, and especially national socialism in Germany, where the principle of nationality and statehood were combined together, the bloody ethnic conflicts in Yugoslavia, etc.
A broad social movement for social reconstruction
Having failed through responsible persons to influence the course of events, R. Steiner writes, "the family: a Proclamation to the German people and the cultural world", where in a concise manner presents his views on the causes of war and prospects for development. Under the "Proclamation" is signed by a huge number of people, among them a significant public figures of the then Germany (Professor of law the Blum, Thomas Mann, etc. ). Professor Blum was then an active participant in the movement which arose over the "Threefold social organism", based on the ideas of R. Steiner. R. Steiner delivers numerous lectures on the social question, first in Switzerland, then in Germany, among workers in academic and bourgeois circles. Central to this period of development of social ideas becomes the fate of the labor movement, the organization of work councils, employee participation in management. R. Steiner in his speeches and activities in which he tries to overcome the spiritual gap between the labor movement and other sectors of society, to create viable forms of cooperation between the bourgeoisie and the labor movement. In his lectures and in books and articles of that period he applies to the various aspects of the new social order, expresses significant ideas in the field of Economics and law, entering the details up to the monetary theory, land law, tax system, etc. , later development and has not lost its relevance up to our days.
The founding of the First Waldorf school — the fruit of the movement for the threefold social organism
The idea of school focused solely on pedagogical tasks is the most important part of the social question
Speaking to factory workers of the Waldorf-Astoria, R. Steiner vividly described the new school type, as an indispensable composite part of the free spiritual life of society, without which no external social reforms will not be fruitful in the long term. Factory workers — it was a cigarette factory Waldorf-Astoria — turned to the plant Manager Emil Moltu to help create such a school, which was mentioned by R. Steiner for their children. E. Molt addressed to R. Steiner with the request to assume the pedagogical leadership of school. R. Steiner readily agreed. It was April 25, 1919.
The basis of pedagogy — an authentic anthropology
Followed by the rapid development of events: 13 may, permission was granted for the Foundation of a new school from the Minister of culture of Hyman, June R. Steiner lectures on folk pedagogy. A new pedagogy needs to be based on "a genuine anthropology", which is able to comprehensively describe the development of human, considering both physical and soul-spiritual aspects. In August, he conducts intensive workshops with twelve teachers, future colleagues, the First Waldorf school. On 7 September the school was already open from eight classes and 256 students.
The innovative impetus of the first Waldorf school
Strikingly, Waldorf pedagogy, which found its practical implementation in the First school, one is created with all the innovations that characterize it to this day. The impression that R. Steiner only patiently waited for the right moment to carry out the years cherished them with pedagogical ideas. Let's enumerate the main innovations that was carried out by R. Steiner in the "maternal school" Waldorf movement:
- specific age orientation of the curriculum and teaching methods;
- the content of education focuses on the spiritual needs of each age level and serves as the spiritual and emotional development of the student;
- the principle of a class teacher who leads his class from first to eighth year of teaching;
- classroom teacher responsible, in collaboration with his colleagues, in cooperation with parents builds the entire educational process and has a significant degree of pedagogical freedom;
- for a child of Junior and secondary school teacher important subject;
- the revival of the oral tradition of the story of the teacher, the material for which serve cultural-historical legends of mankind (tales, legends of the saints, fables, biblical history, mythology of the peoples of the world, scenes of ancient and medieval history, the biographies of prominent historical figures, etc. );
- the telling and retelling of every day have a special time of the lesson;
- integration of theatrical productions of these subjects in the educational process;
- special emphasis on the artistic or aesthetic element in teaching, as well as for needlework and crafts;
- the curriculum included painting, plastilinovaya, music, eurhythmy, needlework (also for boys), craft — work in wood and metal (also for girls), horticulture;
- thus, through varied practical work, developing strong-willed culture of the student;
- the joint education of boys and girls, and the lack of separation by socio-material basis; the school is a school for all;
- cancel the digital evaluation (marks); the abolition of grade repetition;
- school, thus, ceases to be a place of distribution of social chances and selection — sorting of students into good and bad; everyone can freely and develop in accordance with their individual characteristics;
- therapeutic aspect of pedagogy;
- the introduction of the "hygienic teaching", focus on the rhythm of the day, week, year;
- the subjects are taught in "epochs" — within 3-4 weeks for one subject in the first double lesson;
- this leads to a concentration of educational material and allows the teacher to organic, consistent development of material for "age", associated with the therapeutic aspect of the integration of the physician into the life of the school;
- the latter participates in conferences and lectures;
- teaching of two foreign languages from first grade special methods;
- weekly teacher conferences with the aim to constantly innovate pedagogy through the deepening of human cognition and practical continuing education and professional development of teachers;
- of this are the discussions of individual pupils or entire classes, as well as discussing questions of methodology and didactics;
- collegial self-government school teachers;
- collaboration of parents and teachers devoted to the General task of education;
Connecting Humanities and natural science content model of the integrated comprehensive school
All these innovations R. Steiner has put forward as requirements to modern school and also practically implemented them in the First Waldorf school. They, together with teachers, has developed a number of new impulses in the methodology and didactics of teaching of separate disciplines. Needless to say that the traditional teaching of natural Sciences — mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry — is also a very serious place. Science education in the Waldorf school, based on the approach to the natural science of Goethe, raises in recent years the interest of the public educational system of Germany in connection with the General crisis of science, the problems of humanization of school and environmental education.
Close cooperation with the school, assistance in specific pedagogical situations
R. Steiner intensively involved in the life of the school, regularly conducts conference participates in discussion of difficult students. How exactly was this involvement, we can see in the following examples. In one class there was a boy that caused General concern. R. Steiner was advised to give him a job to make his new shoes. The result of this work the difficulties faced by teenagers and teachers, were in significant resolved. About another pupil with behavioural disorders R. Steiner advised the teacher to ask this every day question and ask the next day response. "Surprisingly, the fact that he was asked every day, worked ozdoravlivayuschim the whole emotional life of the boy — says a great teacher, he had the confidence which slowly began to increase. " Caroline Hedebrant that in his memoirs, gives many such examples, notes that at first, when it comes to difficult students, R. Steiner was easy enough to tell where the child sits, and he immediately knew he was talking about. Another teacher complained R. Steiner that it is difficult every day to remember the dream of all pupils in their class, that is 30 children, remembers how R. Steiner replied, "But what I have in front of him every day the whole school?" R. Steiner on his personal example of what art education on the basis of human cognition.
Public teaching activities
Soon the school attracted the attention of the teaching community, and R. Steiner begin to invite in different cities of Germany, Switzerland, England for presentations about them based pedagogy. These lectures were transcribed and constitute, together with workshops for teachers of the Stuttgart school case of the 15 volumes of collected works on pedagogy and education.
The last years of life. Implementation of pulse in many areas
The last period of activity of R. Steiner characterized by increased activity primarily in practical areas. Upon the closure of the company for the "Threefold social organism" on the political scene a number of active members of the movement are attempting to create examples of a new organization of economic activities. In 1920 in Germany, based Joint-stock company "commande Der tag" (the Coming day), and the company "Futurum" in Switzerland, at the expense and under the auspices of which based medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural areas, biochemical and physical laboratory, therapeutic-pedagogical orphanages. R. Steiner works in all these areas with doctors, health educators, biologists, pharmacists discussing patients and giving specific recommendations for experiments and preparation drugs. He reads a number of courses on medicine, agriculture, curative education. Under medical direction, the foundations are laid of a number of new therapies, specific drugs (e. g. , cancer therapy preparations from mistletoe), art therapy and anthroposophic psychiatry.
In agriculture R. Steiner puts forward the idea of "agricultural individuality". Each separate household — a closed individual organism, consisting of soil, plants, animals and humans associated with the entire body of the earth and the cosmos. Recommendations R. Steiner relate both to General issues of agricultural production and components fertilizers and soil care. He founded the movement, later called bio-dynamic agriculture is a pioneer of ecological agriculture and has spread in many countries of the world.
Curative education and its specificity
"Curative education course", which serves as the basis of Anthroposophical curative education, common now around the world, R. Steiner reads, treating specific children with disabilities, discussing them in the presence of teachers who make the records of these discussions and outlines the specific therapy for each. This form of course due to the fact that curative education is less likely to proceed from General principles, but must apply to every case especially. In the foreground is an individual attitude of the teacher that was the purpose of such discussions. Nevertheless, in the curative education course offers a systematic typology of developmental disabilities. The basic idea is that developmental disorders do not relate to the spiritual core of the personality of the child, but only psycho-physical shells.
The acting course
The spirit cannot be sick, but it can be broken it's a healthy realization. This appeal to the healthy spiritual core of the personality of a sick child — is the guiding thread of each of the Anthroposophical curative teacher. Work in the field of dramatic arts and development of artistic speech that lasted all the years since 1907, has found its generalization in the "Dramatic course". Brilliant Russian actor Michael Chekhov further develops these ideas in his book "skill of the actor".
Anthroposophical society. The fire of the Goetheanum and the reorganization of the Anthroposophical society
In addition to special areas, so-called "daughter movements", R. Steiner in the last years of his life continuing to develop and deepen self Anthroposophical doctrine and deals with the reorganization of the Anthroposophical society. New year's eve 1922/23 year as a result of arson burned the Goetheanum, in which are embodied many of the artistic impulses of R. Steiner. R. Steiner sees in this event the external expression of the crisis. Anthroposophical society, which has ceased to be adequate grown Anthroposophical movement. To the anthroposophic movement came to people of many different spiritual warehouses and aspirations, which often led to serious complications. Therefore, R. Steiner attempts to reorganize the Anthroposophical society, which should be adequate Anthroposophical movement. For this purpose it, not even a former member of the Anthroposophical society, assumes the leadership of the latter and performs in Society a number of innovations, the purpose of which was to try to implement in the Anthroposophical society, the organization of a new type, built on the purely spiritual human relations. A member of the Anthroposophical society can be everyone, regardless of belief, religious and national identity, which recognizes the legitimacy of the Anthroposophical impulse in the culture; "a society rejects any sectarian aspirations. . . and eliminates the dogmatism in any field. . . ". All publications, including lectures for members of the Theosophical, and later Anthroposophical society available only to transformations in society, become public and go on public sale "in order to destroy the last remnants of the "mystery". . .
A close relationship with the school until the end of life. Crises and successes. The illness and death of R. Steiner
Despite the acute shortage of time R. Steiner uses the opportunity to work with the Board of the Stuttgart school, which in its development has experienced a number of crises. First state inspection held in 1923, noted a number of deficiencies in the work. After reviewing the criticism, R. Steiner recognized it as fair. The whole of 1924 he, together with the College, was devoted to improvement of pedagogical process. Much of this work remained unfinished. In the autumn of 1924 R. Steiner plans to hold a special seminar on moral education, and to deepen the artistic element in teaching individual subjects. However, illness prevented him to implement these plans. During his illness, which lasted six months, he continues to work and receive visitors. R. Steiner died on 30 March 1925 in Dornach.
The College, greeted the death of R. Steiner as a call to responsibility, tried to strengthen its work in these areas. With satisfaction we can say that it succeeded. The same document state inspection, conducted in the fall of 1925, that is six months after the death of R. Steiner, Advisor school Department Hartleben, ends with the words: "Who will come into contact with the Waldorf school, the first moment can not resist the impression that the school is a kind of teacher's College. Model seems to me the relationship between colleagues;one in love is different; each radiates the strength to once again take power from the other; against this Board far petty bickering, envy and jealousy. "
Further development of the Waldorf movement — pedagogical culture. Outside the school walls
By the end of our century of Waldorf pedagogy has become a global education movement. She went far beyond just teaching "institutions" becoming a special pedagogical culture. This is reflected, for example, the special architecture schools, the style of decoration and decoration movement reached several famous German storytellers and interpreters of fairy tales. A proliferation of "fairy club", children's puppet shows, children's circus and other forms of creative activity, of Waldorf summer camp with work on the farm or in the woods, etc. The famous children's writer Michael ende, a former Waldorf student — published books have become bestsellers children's German-language and world literature — "Momo" and "neverending story" — in his books embodies living "Waldorf spirit" and more. Waldorf school and initiative become alive to the pedagogical communities, "ecological niches" of childhood.
Concluding remarks Rudolf Steiner — "pro" and "contra". Two equally false position
Public recognition of the practical branches of the Anthroposophical work is primarily pedagogical, medical-pedagogical and medical directions, and steinerova ideas relating to the social and economic life, mingled with the subdued and often even hostile attitude of that society to his Theosophical and Anthroposophical views that are considered mystical and unscientific. In the lifetime of R. Steiner became the object of, on the one hand, the enthusiastic and unconditional veneration, on the other — as an absolute sharp criticism and hostility. Both positions seem to be counterproductive. Achievements of Waldorf pedagogy is evident to every unbiased person and supported by many empirical studies.
Waldorf pedagogy is not necessary neither to admire nor to bring her anathema. It needs to be studied
Many prominent representatives of the pedagogical science and politicians have a relation to Steiner's teaching, are active in the Anthroposophical society and remain staunch supporters of the Waldorf movement. However, this does not mean that one should blind and uncritic fan or a denier of this pedagogy direction. Relation to such interesting area as Waldorf pedagogy, to such controversial figure as R. Steiner, it should be — like everything else — scientific, and this means research and critical in a positive sense, that is analyzing and clarifying. Research in this area can greatly enrich the domestic pedagogy and the experience of the Russian kindergartens and schools — teaching practice. Only be assessed they should not for ideological, but purely on pedagogical criteria.
Rudolf Steiner, Friedrich Nietzsche and Elena Blavatsky
In real school teaching is focused on exact and technical sciences, while in the gymnasium are the humanitarian subjects dominating, with emphasis on classical languages and history. R. Steiner worked for some time in the Nietzsche archive and wrote a monograph "Nietzsche — a fighter against his age". Evaluation R. Steiner, Friedrich Nietzsche is ambivalent. First, he appreciates Nietzsche, but then exposes his critique, considering that a lot of Nietzsche — a consequence of mental illness.
Still R. Steiner understood by many purely as a Theosophist and even a pupil of E. P. Blavatsky, which is fundamentally wrong. In many lectures R. Steiner gives a differentiated, mixed assessment Blavatsky and nowhere else in his book does not refer to it.